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Lets talk now about some other substance related disorders starting with marijuana. So the the main active component in marijuana is thc an assessment for marijuana consists of urine screenings. And itll actually stay positive for about four weeks after use some of the assessment.
Signs are going to be seeing a patient who seems euphoric. They may have impaired coordination during times of marijuana intoxication fast heartbeat or tachycardia conjunctival injection. Which is really a key marker for marijuana intoxication dry mouth and increased appetite during the withdrawal phase of marijuana patient may present with irritability.
Insomnia. Nausea. And decreased appetite.
So want to talk a little bit about motivational syndrome. And what this is so motivational syndrome is really associated with cannabis abuse. And its characterized by an unwillingness to participate in tasks that require prolonged attention.
So this can be seen in somebody whos really a chronic user of marijuana and they really are unwilling to engage in things that are gonna require a lot of attention and focus moving on now to caffeine a very highly abused substance. So intoxication with caffeine looks like the following anxiety. Insomnia twitching.
Rambling speech flushed face diary c.s gi disturbance and also restlessness some results of caffeine consumption over one gram so a huge amount of caffeine can result in tinnitus severe agitation and it can actually cause a cardiac arrhythmia in extreme cases of caffeine consumption.
The symptoms can also include seizures and respiratory failure. Some of the symptoms of withdrawal from caffeine include headache. Nausea and vomiting zenas anxiety and actually depression and usually caffeine.
Withdrawal will begin in within 24 hours of its last use and it will peak within about two days. The good news is for people hoping to get off of caffeine coffee soda. Whatever usually withdrawal will remit after about a week.
And then person basically resets and no longer has any of these undesirable symptoms. Now lets talk about nicotine. Another very highly abused substance.
Nicotine addiction is very prominent in other mental health disorders. So its often seen in patients who have schizophrenia depression anxiety. The lifetime prevalence of nicotine addiction is actually 20.
So its very high and two of the most common causes of death associated with nicotine are actually cardiovascular disease. Which could be stroke or heart attack and lung disease in the form of copd cancer or pneumonia. So very serious consequences with this with this substance and a little bit more about nicotine.
So of course. Its derived from the tobacco plant it stimulates nicotinic receptors in the autonomic ganglia of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Its highly highly addictive. Because of its work through the dopaminergic system. So when somebody say takes a hit of nicotine through smoking or whatnot they get a surge of dopamine release and then this is what drives them to keep smoking so they can keep releasing dopamine.
And it becomes very addictive. During the intoxicated state. With nicotine.
People can appear restless. They can have insomnia anxiety and gi upset. They can also have cravings dysphoria anxiety increased appetite irritability and insomnia again so health and cognitive problems that come along oh.
What kind of things can you think about that put people especially children of smoking parents at risk so children in a home with a smoking parent are gonna be a particular risk for developing otitis media. Pneumonia asthma sudden infant death syndrome. Theyll have a low birth weight low performance on standardized tests and also poorer athletic performance.
So there are a lot of drawbacks to that secondhand smoke especially when its a child whos incurring. The secondhand smoke treatment options for nicotine include behavioral counseling. Replacement through gum or a patch and also other medications like clonidine bupropion and varan cycling cocaine is a commonly abused substance and this works by blocking dopamine uptake from the synaptic cleft causing a stimulant effect in patients and dopamine plays a critical role in the brains reward system a very important point because this really is what drives addictions during cocaine intoxication.
A patient may appear euphoric have changes to their blood pressure and heart rate. They may have some nausea.
Youll see dilated pupils a very important point to remember weight loss. And sometimes psychomotor changes. They can also have chills respiratory problems.
Sweating. Seizures. Arrhythmias.
And hallucinations. So. When youre meeting.
Somebody whos testing positive for cocaine and they seem to be in the intoxicated state. Because theyre still euphoric you really do want to monitor them closely for an arrhythmia by checking an ekg you might monitor them closely for seizure disorder. Maybe even check.
An eeg and you want to screen them for psychiatric symptoms. As well cocaines vasoconstrictive effects may result in a myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. So paying close attention to their cardiac system is very very important because cocaine use can actually lead to death through these things how long do you think the urine drug screen stays positive for cocaine after use the answer is three days.
So for a while and do you know any street names that are used for cocaine here are a few just to keep in mind. The causes of death from cocaine use include a myocardial infarction cerebrovascular accident and also muellers maneuver.
And what this is is a pneumothorax and its caused when a patient will exhale against a closed glottis thereby causing the pneumothorax heres a question for you which of the following treatments here is for cocaine dependence. So take a moment and look over these treatments. And if you guess psychotherapy and group therapy.
Youre exactly right so. The long term treatment for a dependency problem is really going to be psychotherapy and support through peers. However if youre in the emergency room or an acute care setting and you encounter.
A patient who is intoxicated on cocaine. Theyre probably going to benefit from some of the following. So because theyre overly excited and euphoric benzodiazepines might be helpful in the very short term to help calm them down.
They also were going to need some symptomatic support. Theyre gonna need to be hydrated. Youre gonna have to check their vital signs always make sure their abcs are under control and monitor them at on on an ekg for cardiac arrhythmia.
The patient is also going to respond positively to haloperidol. Which is an anti psychotic and this can be used in the patient whos having hallucinations during the period of intoxication especially. If those hallucinations are at all dangerous such as command auditory hallucinations telling the patient to harm themselves or others.
And then eventually as the patient comes down from there intoxication theyre going to start to withdraw from the cocaine. And theyre really going to experience. Whats called a crash and this is going to look like hyper somnolence and the best thing you can do for your patient is really to let them sleep off that crash music.
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