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Again friends in this video. Well be talking about a frameshift mutation. Now what what we mean by friendship mutation as the name such is the frame shift so is the shifting of frames right.
But what are the frames and why we call frames now you know that if you start with the dna. We are having this dna all the informations are incorporated in this dna. And it will make the mrna and im drawing in more in a little bit like that and it finally makes the proteins right now this mrna is having all those three let three nucleotide codons right.
Which are the blueprint of life. Now those codons. We are looking at here.
This is the ammonia of wild type cell. This is they might have a mutant cell now this a mine is really important and the codon sequence rather is a much more important because these codons are coding for different types of amino acids that we require to make our desired proteins now what will happen there are three nucleotide sequences each apps for a particular code on each synthesizer which signifies a particular type of amino acid a specific type of amino acid rather now like this is see a code for codes for root amine. You see c codes for setting cg g codes for arginine and all these amino acid sequences.
But if any changes happen like that so suppose any kind of change happens so so this this three letter code on so if we arrange them in different ways. We can find a combination of different codons. Now all of these different codons will code for a for a specific type of amino acid sequences.
But there are some type of codons like two or three codons are there which code for the same amino acid goes for code for one single amino acid sequences. Okay this could be also possible because if we look at the genetic code you can find this easily. But here what we can see now right after the mutation.
What kind of mutation is happening in this case. The mutation is the addition type of mutation now what do we mean by the addition type of mutation now you can see there is there are caa you see cc gg now here instead are in between these. Two a another is been incorporated so here it is the position if i draw at this position.
This a or adding is easy incorporated as a result of this extra incorporation of adenine. It will change the codon frame. Now what we mean by the frame frame means h.
Single codon. Now. It is called one frame.
So one codon means one frame instead of frame. One this is the frame. This is the frame three now each of the frame is coding for is coding a particular specific amino acid.
Now as a result of this new adding. In addition. The frame r is changing.
So. The frame. Number you may same one to see.
But frame amino acid code is changed like that in the previous case. The code is caa. Now the code becomes numb.
The code becomes ca. So the first code remains the same so the so it will go to terminate. It also called for glutamine so no change in that its fine.
But the second code as we can see it was ucc. But in this case. It was a you see you can see here.
It is a you see as a result in previous case.
It was code for it was coding for setting. Neither it is coding for isoleucine. It is a change again in next case.
It was coding for arginine night is coding for prolene. Okay. Now why it is happening just try to just look at it very carefully now if we put here one.
A adenine here. Now what will happen how the frame is changing let me take another color now how this is changing now. The first frame.
Which was caa before now. It is this ca the second frame here is a you see instead of ucc. Now the third frame is ccg and the fourth frame was c.
And all this so you can see these are the results. So just shifting off one ship or addition of one nucleotide can lead up to the shifting of one nucleotide right so we have added this so this part is one frame. Then this part is another then this part is another than this so as a result.
The frame is shifting so shifting by one nucleotide here. If we had two nucleotide sequences. It is shifted by two nucleotide may finish.
If we add the amount of nickel degree. We add it will shift the frame by that fold. And as a result it will change this so no matter.
We are adding to we are adding 3. We are adding one nucleotide. But it is going to change protein sequences and not only protein sequence of one or two it will change all the amino acid sequences that are downstream.
Okay. So it will change so. The effect is so much magnified.
Okay. Thats really really devastating. The effect is really huge on to the production of proteins.
So as a result. Suppose you need to make a protein. Which shapes like this to fit onto a dna.
It will make a protein. Which is just looks like this it is not at all the protein. We wanted and actually rather you can see also that this protein is devastating.
This can also lead to the apoptosis of the cell. Okay so this can also be happen duty this kind of mutations okay so a type of nutrition. It could be a the frame shift mutation cannot occur by via different causes so it could be a addition it could be a deletion deletion can also lead up suppose these are this if this is removed from this space.
Then also you can have a shift of in this case. This is this will be the first this will be the second and this will be the third right deletion can also lead up to the frame frame shift mutation okay our transition transversion all these things can lead up to the frame shift mutation. So the codons are specifically placed and they are specified for particularly amino acids.
So we need to make them stable. We do not disturb them if they are disrupted then it will make a devastating effect on the cell. Okay so thats the basic take home message.
Okay so thats it and i hope it will help you thank you .
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